Tag Archives: fluorescent lamp

Switching in the Power Plant Substation Switchyard

Originally posted on February 9, 2013:

The phone rang Saturday morning on March 17, 1984. Since we didn’t have caller ID at that time, I had to pick up the phone to tell who was on the other end. It was my foreman Charles Foster. He said he needed to go out to the plant to do some switching in the substation and he needed someone to help him. I had been an electrician for all of 5 months and this was the first time I had been involved with switching in the substation.

When I arrived at the plant 30 minutes later, the operators in the control room were busy putting Unit 1 online. Charles Foster had brought along his son Tim Foster. Tim was about 10 years old at the time. The operators didn’t have any certified switchmen available, and so the Shift Supervisor, Jim Padgett gave the go ahead for me to go with Charles and act as the “secondary” switchman. That is, I was the one that read and re-read the instructions while Charles would actually crank the switches.

Here is a picture of a typical substation you might run across:

Parts of a Typical Substation

Parts of a Typical Substation

I found this picture on the Department of Labor website. The Main substation at the power plant was much bigger than this one. Half of the substation was the 189,000 volt substation the other half was the 345,000 volt substation. For the particular switching that we were doing that day, we were in the 189 KV end of the substation. This is where Unit 1 fed power to the world.

This was my first experience doing something in the substation other than sub inspections and Transfer Trip and Carrier tests. I was a little surprised when Charles closed one of the air break switches and there was a loud crackling sound as an arc of electricity jumped from one switch to the next. Charles told me that was nothing. Just wait until I close the main switch from the transformer on Unit 2 in the 345 KV sub up the hill.

He was right. Later when I first opened that switch, it drew an arc about 3 feet long before it broke the circuit with a loud pop. You could hear the echo of the booming arc as the sound bounced off the nearby hills…..um…. if there had been hills… It was pretty flat…. being Oklahoma and all. I suppose it was bouncing off of the Power Plant and maybe some trees off in the distance. Well. Anyway. It did echo for a while.

After my first experience in the substation, I decided that substations were one of the neatest places to be. I later became certified as a switchman (multiple times, as you had to renew your certification every 2 or 3 years). Eventually becoming a Switchman trainer. Later when I was with my girlfriend, and even after she became my wife, and we would drive by a substation, I had to be careful not to run off the road since I was usually straining my neck to get a closer look at the substation.

This would result in Kelly become agitated (jokingly of course) that I was paying more attention to the substations than her. To this day, when we pass a substation, my wife Kelly will still let out a “hmmph” when I exaggeratedly ogle a passing substation. I mean…. Can you blame me?

Don't Substations look cool?

Don’t Substations look cool?

Well. Throughout the years, Substation switching became more an more safe. When I first began switching, we would just wear High Voltage rubber gloves and maybe a face shield. Later we had to wear an Arc Flash Protective suit just in case something blew up:

An Arc Flash Protector

An Arc Flash Protector (that’s a pretty creepy looking guy in there)

One time one of the switches broke and exploded in the 345 KV substation and we found a large piece of insulator 200 yards away. This suit wasn’t going to protect you from that. It was only going to keep you from being burned if there was a flash explosion.

In the early 1990’s there was what was known as the “EMF Scare”. That was the belief that the high voltage electric lines caused Leukemia. It was true that children in cities that lived near high voltage electric lines had a higher risk of having Leukemia than the general population. It also happened that these High Voltage lines ran right down major roadways, so that these same children were breathing a lot more exhaust from the cars and trucks on the road than your average person also.

Anyway. When we worked in the substation we all knew that we were being bathed in electricity. If I took my volt meter and dropped one end to the ground and held the other end up by my head, it would peg my meter out at 1000 volts. One day in the evening when it was time to go home, Scott Hubbard and I were delayed because a fuse block had burned up in a breaker panel in the 345 KV substation.

It was drizzling at the time, so you could hear the electricity about 30 feet above our heads crackling and popping. Scott and I were standing behind the pickup truck looking for spare parts in my tool bucket and I had poured out some nuts, bolts and screws onto the bed of the truck. As we were sifting through them looking for the parts we needed, both of us were thinking that I must have had some metal shavings mixed in with the nuts and bolts. When we would move them around we kept feeling like we were being stabbed by metal shavings….. It turned out that it was just sparks jumping from the truck to our fingers.

10 years after my first encounter in a substation, while I was on the Confined Space Rescue team, we had to be out at the plant at night because some people were working in the condenser and the Confined Space Rescue team had to be on site. So, while we were there, we were doing things like cleaning up shop and stuff. Ray Eberle was working with me, and he asked me if I had ever heard about holding up a fluorescent light in a substation and having it glow.

I told him that I had, and it does glow. We went to the electric shop where I retrieved a couple of new 4 foot fluorescent lamps and we headed to the 345 KV substation around midnight.

When we arrived, we climbed out of the truck, and I demonstrated how just by holding the fluorescent tube upright, it would light up:

Holding up Flourescent tubes under high voltage lines

Holding up Flourescent tubes under high voltage lines

Ray was fascinated by this, and was noticing how the tube would light up from the point where you were holding the tube on up. As he was experimenting with this new found knowledge, there was an odd popping sound that would occur about every 5 seconds. I was standing there watching Ray in the dark. Ray finally asked me…. “Where is that popping sound coming from?” I pointed down to his shoes and said. “There are sparking jumping from you shoe down to the ground.”

Looking down at his shoe in the dark, Ray could see about an inch long spark jumping from his shoe down into the large gravel we were standing on. He was startled by this and decided that he had enough scientific lessons for one night. So, we climbed back in the truck and headed back to the plant.

Anyway. During the time that we were having this EMF scare (EMF by the way stands for Electromotive Force), there had been some movie or a 60 Minutes episode on TV about it and it was causing a stir. So, people from Corporate Headquarters were going around trying to educate us about it. One way they did this was to show us how low the levels of EMFs were in the plant.

Well. You can’t convince an electrician that we aren’t constantly being bathed in electricity when we are out in the substation, because we all knew better. This guy came around with a special EMF gun just to show us how the plant was safe… We had a meeting where the engineers agreed that we hardly had any EMFs in the plant. The highest EMFs were found in a drill that mounted horizontally using an electromagnet.

When I heard this, I became skeptical of these findings. And the horizontal drill made me even more suspicious. Not that I minded the EMFs. I found them rather refreshing. They seemed to line up all my thought bubbles in my brain so that I could think better. Kind of like “magnet therapy”.

Then a couple of weeks later my suspicions were verified. Doug Link came down to the electric shop with a guy from Oklahoma City that was going to go with me out to the Substation to measure the EMF levels. — OK. I thought…. Let’s see what happens now… Because I already knew the EMF levels in the Substation just my licking my finger and sticking it in the air…

The guy from Corporate Headquarters took out a roller with a handle much like you would have to measure long distances. Only this had a couple of probes sticking out from either side horizontally. — Now…. Horizontally is the key, and that’s why when they said the Horizontal drill had the most EMFs in the plant, I became suspicious in the first place.

You see…. EMFs have direction. The two probes on the instrument that the man was wheeling around the substation were parallel with the high voltage lines. Therefore, you wouldn’t measure EMFs between the two probes. If the probes had been turned vertically (up and down), I am sure that the voltage (and the EMFs) would have blown the circuitry in the instrument. I say that because the guy that was wheeling this thing around the substation was being very careful not to tilt it one way or the other.

My suspicions were further confirmed when we were in the relay house looking at the results from when he circled the large transformer between the 189 and the 345 subs, and there was a large spike in EMFs at one spot. When we went to look at that spot, it was at the point where the high voltage bus turned down to go into the transformer…. Just like the Horizontal drill…. The direction was across the probes. You see…. EMFs are perpendicular to the flow of electricity. Or straight down from an overhead line. I mean… duh. You had to hold the fluorescent light upright to make it glow….

Well. I thought…. What do I do? Here is a guy trying to pull the wool over our eyes to make us believe that there aren’t any EMFs out there. I felt insulted. On the other hand, I didn’t care about the EMFs. I liked the EMFs. So, after looking at Doug Link straight in the eyes with an astonished look of disbelief that this guy thought we were so gullible to believe this magic act, I decided to let it go. Let him think he relieved our worry that didn’t exist in the first place. Why ruin his day. He had to drive 70 miles back to Corporate Headquarters. Why should he go all that way back thinking that he failed in his mission? So, all I could do was smile.

Anyway. Tim Foster, the 10 year old boy that was with his father, Charles Foster the first time I went to the substation to go switching, later grew up and became an electrician himself. Not only did he become an electrician, but he became an electrician in the same electric shop where his father had worked for 30 years. He works there to this day, and I’m sure that Tim now has an occasion to go switching in the same substation where I first met him. Bathing in the same EMFs. Feeling the same thrill when you open a 345 KV air switch with a loud Pop!

Replies from Previous Post

I do think substations look cool 🙂

Holy Cow! I am learning a lot about Power Plant Stations. This was very good!😊👍

I guess there has been some progress. We have 500KV lines bringing power into northern Virginia from West Virginia. People complain they are eyesores. Of course, if we we had enough sense to generate the power locally, we would not need 500KV lines 200 miles long.

The shoe sparks seem like the most wondrous part of all this. A fluorescent tube lighting up is kind of the expected effect; shoes, that’s different.

Yeah. The shoe sparks surprised me just as much as it did Ray. I’m just glad that he didn’t go up in flames. I knew it was just a static charge, but a charred Ray would have ruined the entire evening.

Yow! And I thought getting a 400-volt shock (DC, fortunately) when I was a teenager was frightening!

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Placed on Light Duty at the Power Plant

Originally posted July 19, 2013:

In another profession being put on light duty may mean that you don’t have to work as hard as everyone else.  When an electrician is put on light duty it means something else entirely.  I think I calculated the number of lights and it was well over 10,000 light bulbs in the coal-fired power plant in North Central Oklahoma.  Ideally you would think that every one of the lights should be in good working order.

Electricians don’t call a light bulb a light.  The light is the fixture.  The bulb is called a “lamp”.  So, for the rest of this post I’ll call the light bulbs “lamps”.

You may think that it’s pretty straight forward to go change out lights (oh.  I mean… lamps), but it’s not.  You see, it isn’t like in your house where you have the regular light bulbs everywhere with just different shapes and wattage.  Sure, there were different Watts for the different lamps, but for a good number of the lights, they varied by voltage as well.

Not only that, but these lamps were different types of lights.  Most of which are not incandescent (well… now that the government has seen fit to force the lighting industry to stop making incandescent lamps altogether, I guess it wouldn’t seem odd to the younger folks).

A descriptive picture of an Incandescent lamp found at www.techlinea.com

A descriptive picture of an Incandescent lamp found at http://www.techlinea.com

In the office areas and places like the main switchgear 4 foot fluorescent lamps were used.  Each 4 foot fluorescent lamp is 40 watts.  Just because it is 40 watts, it doesn’t mean that the voltage is low.  It can take up to 650 volts to start up a fluorescent lamp.  A Fluorescent lamp actually has a gas in it that causes a coating on the glass to glow when a current flows across the gas.

A fluorescent Lamp

A fluorescent Lamp

Besides the typical fluorescent lamps, the majority of the rest of the lamps in the plant were various sizes of Mercury Vapor lamps.  (now replaced with Sodium Vapor).

Before you become all twisted about using Mercury Vapor to light up a power plant because of the environmental impact, I think I should point out that even though a fluorescent lamp is filled with an inert gas like argon, it is mixed with Mercury vapor as well, and the phosphorous coating on the glass has mercury in it also.

So, if you have fluorescent lamps in your house…. Well, there you go.  And you know those lamps that are used to replace your old incandescent light bulbs….. Yep… and they have other kinds of hazardous metals as well.  I suppose it is good for the environment to take those hazardous materials out of the earth and put them in lamps in your houses.  Isn’t that improving the environment?

The thing about using Fluorescent lamps and Mercury Vapors and Sodium Vapor lamps is that they all use different voltages.  So, in order for them to start up and stay running, the voltages have to change from the start up voltage to the operating voltage.  Each lamp has it’s own transformer designed just for that one type of lamp.  It is placed in the light fixture for the lamp.

You can tell this is a 100 Watt Mercury Vapor lamp because of the 10.  If it had a 25, then it would be a 250 watt lamp.   Following the same logic if it has a 75 on it, then it is a 75 watt lamp..... oh...well.. the logic is there somewhere

You can tell this is a 100 Watt Mercury Vapor lamp because of the 10. If it had a 25, then it would be a 250 watt lamp. Following the same logic if it has a 75 on it, then it is a 75 watt lamp….. oh…well.. the logic is there somewhere

If the light glows blue, then it is mercury vapor.  If it is orange then it is a sodium light.  Your street lights are the same way.  Well.  Now there is also Halogen lamps which shine white.

Besides these different type lamps, we also had some super special lights.  We have the flashing lights on the smoke stack and the red blinking light on the top of the radio tower.  The lights that flash on the smoke stacks are really flashbulbs.

A flash tube used in a smoke stack beacon that can easily be seen 50 miles away at night.  Especially when the day time setting is still on

A flash tube used in a smoke stack beacon that can easily be seen 50 miles away at night. Especially when the day time setting is still on

Our smoke stacks are 500 feet tall with beacons at the 250 foot level and the 500 foot level.  Not only did you have to change out the bulb, but you often had to change out the large capacitors and the circuit boards that had been fried by a passing lightning storm.

You may have heard that with the older style Television sets that had a picture tube (before the flat screen TVs came around), that you could electrocute yourself by taking the cover off the back of the TV and working on it, even though you unplugged the set from the wall before you started.  A few movies used this in the plot.  Robert T. Ironside even used it once in an episode during the first season.

Robert T. Ironside played by Raymond Burr

Robert T. Ironside played by Raymond Burr

Well.  The Stack lights are like that.  When we opened up the light fixture to work on the flash tube or the circuits inside the first thing you did was take a metal rod with a wooden handle and a wire attached with a clip on the end and clipped the wire to the handrail.  Then turning your head the other way, you placed the metal rod across each of the large capacitors in the box.   Invariably, one of the capacitors would let out a loud pop that would echo across the lake…. oh, and leave your ears ringing.

Once the voltage was discharged from all the capacitors, you knew it was safe to go to work fixing the light.  The lights had a day and a night mode, and the difference was how many times the flash tube flashed when it discharged.  What I mean to say is that it wasn’t just one flash.  It is really a series of flashes closely timed to look like one flash.  The number of flashes and the timing between the flashes determine how bright the flash is.

At night the flash was much dimmer because it didn’t need to be so bright.  When it was stuck in the day mode at night the farmers for a 30 mile radius would be calling saying they can’t sleep because every 6 seconds their bedroom would light up as the smoke stack lights would blink.

The Lake on a hill with the power plant in the distance at sunset

The Lake on a hill with the power plant in the distance at sunset

I thought I would just put that picture in there so you could see how pretty the plant looked from across the lake at sunset.  To me it looked like a big ship on the horizon.

I mentioned above that there was a radio tower that had a light on it that needed to be changed when it burned out.  The actual lamp looked a lot like a regular incandescent bulb in your house, but it was different.  It was designed just for this job.  It didn’t burn out very often.  Ok.  I can see your look of disbelief, so here is a picture of one:

A radio tower light bulb

A radio tower light bulb

Yeah, looks just like something in your house.  Doesn’t it?

Anyway.  I changed out the light at the top of our radio tower which is only about 200 feet tall.  It looked like the following picture:

Our tower was like this only it didn't have a safety pole up the side for a lanyard.

Our tower was like this only it didn’t have a safety pole up the side for a lanyard.

I had to climb to the top of this tower to replace the red flashing light.  I was by myself when I did it.  Bill Bennett handed me the bulb that had been specially ordered and asked me if I would do it.  If not, they could call Oklahoma City and have the line crew come down and change it.  I told him I could do it.  The tower wasn’t that tall, and I had shimmied around the top of the smoke stack before at 500 feet with only a slight urge to panic.

I changed the lamp out without incident.  I know that some people have a much more interesting job changing these lights out than I had.  Our radio tower was only 200 feet tall.  Here is a video of someone that had to climb a tower 1768 feet high.  You can see the beacon when they reach the top of this radio tower:

if your browser doesn’t play the video from the picture try this link:  “Climbing a 1768 foot tower“.

Ok.  That is crazy!  Wouldn’t dropping someone from a helicopter onto the tower using a safety line be safer?

My last story about being on light duty at a power plant is about when Ted Riddle and I were working at the gas-fired power plant near Mustang, Oklahoma.  I talked about the time that Ted and I worked at this plant in the post “Working Power Plant Wonders with Willard Stark

While we were there after they found out that we were electric conduit running fools, they gave us all sorts of jobs running conduit all over the plant.  One job they showed us was in an area that was dark.  All the lights were out in this area.  The foreman explained where the light bulbs were kept.  They were just the regular incandescent lights like the normal lights you would have in your house.

Well… Ted and I had both been put on Light Duty at our plant, and we knew that when we went to change out one light, we were supposed to change out all the lights that were out.  So, Ted and I each grabbed a box and a ladder and headed up to the boiler enclosure to change lights.

After lunch, the foreman came running up to us yelling, “What did you do?  You used up all of the light bulbs!”  Well.  Yes.  We had used up the lights, but now when you go up on the boiler you can see where you are going.  The foreman then explained to us  that this little plant didn’t have the same kind of budget that the new big plants had.  They couldn’t afford to just go around replacing all the lights whenever they burned out.  They only put in a light when someone has to work in that area.  We had lit the entire place up like a Christmas tree.

Ok.  Take a note Jan… Don’t replace all the lights if they are incandescent.

Ok (again), that wasn’t quite the last story.  Let me tell you some more about replacing Fluorescent lamps in our Coal-fired power plant.  When we were placed on Light Duty, we would grab a couple of boxes of 30 lamps from the pallet in the main switchgear and go to work.

In the main switchgear the lights were up high, so we used a 10 foot ladder with a stand on the top of it (No.  I don’t mean like a Deer stand…. geez… Power Plant men…. always thinkin’ ’bout huntin’).  Actually it is called a Platform ladder:

This is a 6 foot platform ladder.  Ours was 10 foot and very wobbly

This is a solid 6 foot platform ladder. Ours was 10 foot and very wobbly

I didn’t like using this wobbly ladder when I was by myself.  besides being wobbly, the thing weighed a ton.  So, I would take a smaller ladder and put it on top of the breaker cabinets and climb on top of them.  The only problem here was that I couldn’t get directly under the lights, so I would end up reaching out to one side to change a light while I was standing on a ladder on top of a seven foot cabinet.  Not a pretty sight if someone safety minded walked in.

I felt safer doing this than standing way up in the air on a 10 foot wobbly platform ladder.  I always had the feeling that if I sneezed, the ladder would topple over.  The rule of thumb was to keep your belt buckle within the rungs on the ladder.

When we were done changing out fluorescent lamps, we usually had a stack of boxes of burned out lamps.  We couldn’t just throw them in the dumpster because they were a safety hazard as they were.  We had to break each bulb.  We found that we could take a box of 4 foot fluorescent lamps and back the truck over it and it would let out a low but loud boom that sounded like a cannon going off.

The ingenious electricians invented a bulb busting barrel where you slid one 4 foot bulb into a tube and then lifted a handle quickly, and it would explode the lamp in the safe confines of the metal barrel.  The end of the lamp may at times come shooting out the end of the tube, so you never wanted to be standing to that side of the barrel.  I would show you a picture of one, but I’ve never found another one like it.

So, if you were into breaking glass, this was the best part of being placed on Light Duty.  After a hard day of changing out lamps all over the plant, you could stand around in front of the electric shop and slide the lamps down a tube like mortar shell and pull the rod and…. Boom! A puff of Mercury Vapor released into the atmosphere a small cloud of dust…. repeat.

Comment from original post:

  1. Ron Kilman July 24, 2014

    I remember being on “Light Duty” at the Mustang Power Plant as a summer student in 1967. We changed the 1000 watt bulbs in the top of the turbine room. It was so hot, we had to wear gloves.

Placed on Light Duty at the Power Plant

Originally posted July 19, 2013:

In another profession being put on light duty may mean that you don’t have to work as hard as everyone else.  When an electrician is put on light duty it means something else entirely.  I think I calculated the number of lights and it was well over 10,000 light bulbs in the coal-fired power plant in North Central Oklahoma.  Ideally you would think that every one of the lights should be in good working order.

Electricians don’t call a light bulb a light.  The light is the fixture.  The bulb is called a “lamp”.  So, for the rest of this post I’ll call the light bulbs “lamps”.

You may think that it’s pretty straight forward to go change out lights (oh.  I mean… lamps), but it’s not.  You see, it isn’t like in your house where you have the regular light bulbs everywhere with just different shapes and wattage.  Sure, there were different Watts for the different lamps, but for a good number of the lights, they varied by voltage as well.

Not only that, but these lamps were different types of lights.  Most of which are not incandescent (well… now that the government has seen fit to force the lighting industry to stop making incandescent lamps altogether, I guess it wouldn’t seem odd to the younger folks).

A descriptive picture of an Incandescent lamp found at www.techlinea.com

A descriptive picture of an Incandescent lamp found at http://www.techlinea.com

In the office areas and places like the main switchgear 4 foot fluorescent lamps were used.  Each 4 foot fluorescent lamp is 40 watts.  Just because it is 40 watts, it doesn’t mean that the voltage is low.  It can take up to 650 volts to start up a fluorescent lamp.  A Fluorescent lamp actually has a gas in it that causes a coating on the glass to glow when a current flows across the gas.

A fluorescent Lamp

A fluorescent Lamp

Besides the typical fluorescent lamps, the majority of the rest of the lamps in the plant were various sizes of Mercury Vapor lamps.  (now replaced with Sodium Vapor).

Before you become all twisted about using Mercury Vapor to light up a power plant because of the environmental impact, I think I should point out that even though a fluorescent lamp is filled with an inert gas like argon, it is mixed with Mercury vapor as well, and the phosphorous coating on the glass has mercury in it also.

So, if you have fluorescent lamps in your house…. Well, there you go.  And you know those lamps that are used to replace your old incandescent light bulbs….. Yep… and they have other kinds of hazardous metals as well.  I suppose it is good for the environment to take those hazardous materials out of the earth and put them in lamps in your houses.  Isn’t that improving the environment?

The thing about using Fluorescent lamps and Mercury Vapors and Sodium Vapor lamps is that they all use different voltages.  So, in order for them to start up and stay running, the voltages have to change from the start up voltage to the operating voltage.  Each lamp has it’s own transformer designed just for that one type of lamp.  It is placed in the light fixture for the lamp.

You can tell this is a 100 Watt Mercury Vapor lamp because of the 10.  If it had a 25, then it would be a 250 watt lamp.   Following the same logic if it has a 75 on it, then it is a 75 watt lamp..... oh...well.. the logic is there somewhere

You can tell this is a 100 Watt Mercury Vapor lamp because of the 10. If it had a 25, then it would be a 250 watt lamp. Following the same logic if it has a 75 on it, then it is a 75 watt lamp….. oh…well.. the logic is there somewhere

If the light glows blue, then it is mercury vapor.  If it is orange then it is a sodium light.  Your street lights are the same way.  Well.  Now there is also Halogen lamps which shine white.

Besides these different type lamps, we also had some super special lights.  We have the flashing lights on the smoke stack and the red blinking light on the top of the radio tower.  The lights that flash on the smoke stacks are really flashbulbs.

A flash tube used in a smoke stack beacon that can easily be seen 50 miles away at night.  Especially when the day time setting is still on

A flash tube used in a smoke stack beacon that can easily be seen 50 miles away at night. Especially when the day time setting is still on

Our smoke stacks are 500 feet tall with beacons at the 250 foot level and the 500 foot level.  Not only did you have to change out the bulb, but you often had to change out the large capacitors and the circuit boards that had been fried by a passing lightning storm.

You may have heard that with the older style Television sets that had a picture tube (before the flat screen TVs came around), that you could electrocute yourself by taking the cover off the back of the TV and working on it, even though you unplugged the set from the wall before you started.  A few movies used this in the plot.  Robert T. Ironside even used it once in an episode during the first season.

Robert T. Ironside played by Raymond Burr

Robert T. Ironside played by Raymond Burr

Well.  The Stack lights are like that.  When we opened up the light fixture to work on the flash tube or the circuits inside the first thing you did was take a metal rod with a wooden handle and a wire attached with a clip on the end and clipped the wire to the handrail.  Then turning your head the other way, you placed the metal rod across each of the large capacitors in the box.   Invariably, one of the capacitors would let out a loud pop that would echo across the lake…. oh, and leave your ears ringing.

Once the voltage was discharged from all the capacitors, you knew it was safe to go to work fixing the light.  The lights had a day and a night mode, and the difference was how many times the flash tube flashed when it discharged.  What I mean to say is that it wasn’t just one flash.  It is really a series of flashes closely timed to look like one flash.  The number of flashes and the timing between the flashes determine how bright the flash is.

At night the flash was much dimmer because it didn’t need to be so bright.  When it was stuck in the day mode at night the farmers for a 30 mile radius would be calling saying they can’t sleep because every 6 seconds their bedroom would light up as the smoke stack lights would blink.

The Lake on a hill with the power plant in the distance at sunset

The Lake on a hill with the power plant in the distance at sunset

I thought I would just put that picture in there so you could see how pretty the plant looked from across the lake at sunset.  To me it looked like a big ship on the horizon.

I mentioned above that there was a radio tower that had a light on it that needed to be changed when it burned out.  The actual lamp looked a lot like a regular incandescent bulb in your house, but it was different.  It was designed just for this job.  It didn’t burn out very often.  Ok.  I can see your look of disbelief, so here is a picture of one:

A radio tower light bulb

A radio tower light bulb

Yeah, looks just like something in your house.  Doesn’t it?

Anyway.  I changed out the light at the top of our radio tower which is only about 200 feet tall.  It looked like the following picture:

Our tower was like this only it didn't have a safety pole up the side for a lanyard.

Our tower was like this only it didn’t have a safety pole up the side for a lanyard.

I had to climb to the top of this tower to replace the red flashing light.  I was by myself when I did it.  Bill Bennett handed me the bulb that had been specially ordered and asked me if I would do it.  If not, they could call Oklahoma City and have the line crew come down and change it.  I told him I could do it.  The tower wasn’t that tall, and I had shimmied around the top of the smoke stack before at 500 feet with only a slight urge to panic.

I changed the lamp out without incident.  I know that some people have a much more interesting job changing these lights out than I had.  Our radio tower was only 200 feet tall.  Here is a video of someone that had to climb a tower 1768 feet high.  You can see the beacon when they reach the top of this radio tower:

if your browser doesn’t play the video from the picture try this link:  “Climbing a 1768 foot tower“.

Ok.  That is crazy!  Wouldn’t dropping someone from a helicopter onto the tower using a safety line be safer?

My last story about being on light duty at a power plant is about when Ted Riddle and I were working at the gas-fired power plant near Mustang, Oklahoma.  I talked about the time that Ted and I worked at this plant in the post “Working Power Plant Wonders with Willard Stark

While we were there after they found out that we were electric conduit running fools, they gave us all sorts of jobs running conduit all over the plant.  One job they showed us was in an area that was dark.  All the lights were out in this area.  The foreman explained where the light bulbs were kept.  They were just the regular incandescent lights like the normal lights you would have in your house.

Well… Ted and I had both been put on Light Duty at our plant, and we knew that when we went to change out one light, we were supposed to change out all the lights that were out.  So, Ted and I each grabbed a box and a ladder and headed up to the boiler enclosure to change lights.

After lunch, the foreman came running up to us yelling, “What did you do?  You used up all of the light bulbs!”  Well.  Yes.  We had used up the lights, but now when you go up on the boiler you can see where you are going.  The foreman then explained to us  that this little plant didn’t have the same kind of budget that the new big plants had.  They couldn’t afford to just go around replacing all the lights whenever they burned out.  They only put in a light when someone has to work in that area.  We had lit the entire place up like a Christmas tree.

Ok.  Take a note Jan… Don’t replace all the lights if they are incandescent.

Ok (again), that wasn’t quite the last story.  Let me tell you some more about replacing Fluorescent lamps in our Coal-fired power plant.  When we were placed on Light Duty, we would grab a couple of boxes of 30 lamps from the pallet in the main switchgear and go to work.

In the main switchgear the lights were up high, so we used a 10 foot ladder with a stand on the top of it (No.  I don’t mean like a Deer stand…. geez… Power Plant men…. always thinkin’ ’bout huntin’).  Actually it is called a Platform ladder:

This is a 6 foot platform ladder.  Ours was 10 foot and very wobbly

This is a solid 6 foot platform ladder. Ours was 10 foot and very wobbly

I didn’t like using this wobbly ladder when I was by myself.  besides being wobbly, the thing weighed a ton.  So, I would take a smaller ladder and put it on top of the breaker cabinets and climb on top of them.  The only problem here was that I couldn’t get directly under the lights, so I would end up reaching out to one side to change a light while I was standing on a ladder on top of a seven foot cabinet.  Not a pretty sight if someone safety minded walked in.

I felt safer doing this than standing way up in the air on a 10 foot wobbly platform ladder.  I always had the feeling that if I sneezed, the ladder would topple over.  The rule of thumb was to keep your belt buckle within the rungs on the ladder.

When we were done changing out fluorescent lamps, we usually had a stack of boxes of burned out lamps.  We couldn’t just throw them in the dumpster because they were a safety hazard as they were.  We had to break each bulb.  We found that we could take a box of 4 foot fluorescent lamps and back the truck over it and it would let out a low but loud boom that sounded like a cannon going off.

The ingenious electricians invented a bulb busting barrel where you slid one 4 foot bulb into a tube and then lifted a handle quickly, and it would explode the lamp in the safe confines of the metal barrel.  The end of the lamp may at times come shooting out the end of the tube, so you never wanted to be standing to that side of the barrel.  I would show you a picture of one, but I’ve never found another one like it.

So, if you were into breaking glass, this was the best part of being placed on Light Duty.  After a hard day of changing out lamps all over the plant, you could stand around in front of the electric shop and slide the lamps down a tube like mortar shell and pull the rod and…. Boom! A puff of Mercury Vapor released into the atmosphere a small cloud of dust…. repeat.

Comment from original post:

  1. Ron Kilman July 24, 2014

    I remember being on “Light Duty” at the Mustang Power Plant as a summer student in 1967. We changed the 1000 watt bulbs in the top of the turbine room. It was so hot, we had to wear gloves.

Switching in the Power Plant Substation Switchyard

Originally posted on February 9, 2013:

The phone rang Saturday morning on March 17, 1984. Since we didn’t have caller ID at that time, I had to pick up the phone to tell who was on the other end. It was my foreman Charles Foster. He said he needed to go out to the plant to do some switching in the substation and he needed someone to help him. I had been an electrician for all of 5 months and this was the first time I had been involved with switching in the substation.

When I arrived at the plant 30 minutes later, the operators in the control room were busy putting Unit 1 online. Charles Foster had brought along his son Tim Foster. Tim was about 10 years old at the time. The operators didn’t have any certified switchmen available, and so the Shift Supervisor, Jim Padgett gave the go ahead for me to go with Charles and act as the “secondary” switchman. That is, I was the one that read and re-read the instructions while Charles would actually crank the switches.

Here is a picture of a typical substation you might run across:

Parts of a Typical Substation

Parts of a Typical Substation

I found this picture on the Department of Labor website. The Main substation at the power plant was much bigger than this one. Half of the substation was the 189,000 volt substation the other half was the 345,000 volt substation. For the particular switching that we were doing that day, we were in the 189 KV end of the substation. This is where Unit 1 fed power to the world.

This was my first experience doing something in the substation other than sub inspections and Transfer Trip and Carrier tests. I was a little surprised when Charles closed one of the air break switches and there was a loud crackling sound as an arc of electricity jumped from one switch to the next. Charles told me that was nothing. Just wait until I close the main switch from the transformer on Unit 2 in the 345 KV sub up the hill.

He was right. Later when I first opened that switch, it drew an arc about 3 feet long before it broke the circuit with a loud pop. You could hear the echo of the booming arc as the sound bounced off the nearby hills…..um…. if there had been hills… It was pretty flat…. being Oklahoma and all. I suppose it was bouncing off of the Power Plant and maybe some trees off in the distance. Well. Anyway. It did echo for a while.

After my first experience in the substation, I decided that substations were one of the neatest places to be. I later became certified as a switchman (multiple times, as you had to renew your certification every 2 or 3 years). Eventually becoming a Switchman trainer. Later when I was with my girlfriend, and even after she became my wife, and we would drive by a substation, I had to be careful not to run off the road since I was usually straining my neck to get a closer look at the substation.

This would result in Kelly become agitated (jokingly of course) that I was paying more attention to the substations than her. To this day, when we pass a substation, my wife Kelly will still let out a “hmmph” when I exaggeratedly ogle a passing substation. I mean…. Can you blame me?

Don't Substations look cool?

Don’t Substations look cool?

Well. Throughout the years, Substation switching became more an more safe. When I first began switching, we would just wear High Voltage rubber gloves and maybe a face shield. Later we had to wear an Arc Flash Protective suit just in case something blew up:

An Arc Flash Protector

An Arc Flash Protector (that’s a pretty creepy looking guy in there)

One time one of the switches broke and exploded in the 345 KV substation and we found a large piece of insulator 200 yards away. This suit wasn’t going to protect you from that. It was only going to keep you from being burned if there was a flash explosion.

In the early 1990’s there was what was known as the “EMF Scare”. That was the belief that the high voltage electric lines caused Leukemia. It was true that children in cities that lived near high voltage electric lines had a higher risk of having Leukemia than the general population. It also happened that these High Voltage lines ran right down major roadways, so that these same children were breathing a lot more exhaust from the cars and trucks on the road than your average person also.

Anyway. When we worked in the substation we all knew that we were being bathed in electricity. If I took my volt meter and dropped one end to the ground and held the other end up by my head, it would peg my meter out at 1000 volts. One day in the evening when it was time to go home, Scott Hubbard and I were delayed because a fuse block had burned up in a breaker panel in the 345 KV substation.

It was drizzling at the time, so you could hear the electricity about 30 feet above our heads crackling and popping. Scott and I were standing behind the pickup truck looking for spare parts in my tool bucket and I had poured out some nuts, bolts and screws onto the bed of the truck. As we were sifting through them looking for the parts we needed, both of us were thinking that I must have had some metal shavings mixed in with the nuts and bolts. When we would move them around we kept feeling like we were being stabbed by metal shavings….. It turned out that it was just sparks jumping from the truck to our fingers.

10 years after my first encounter in a substation, while I was on the Confined Space Rescue team, we had to be out at the plant at night because some people were working in the condenser and the Confined Space Rescue team had to be on site. So, while we were there, we were doing things like cleaning up shop and stuff. Ray Eberle was working with me, and he asked me if I had ever heard about holding up a fluorescent light in a substation and having it glow.

I told him that I had, and it does glow. We went to the electric shop where I retrieved a couple of new 4 foot fluorescent lamps and we headed to the 345 KV substation around midnight.

When we arrived, we climbed out of the truck, and I demonstrated how just by holding the fluorescent tube upright, it would light up:

Holding up Flourescent tubes under high voltage lines

Holding up Flourescent tubes under high voltage lines

Ray was fascinated by this, and was noticing how the tube would light up from the point where you were holding the tube on up. As he was experimenting with this new found knowledge, there was an odd popping sound that would occur about every 5 seconds. I was standing there watching Ray in the dark. Ray finally asked me…. “Where is that popping sound coming from?” I pointed down to his shoes and said. “There are sparking jumping from you shoe down to the ground.”

Looking down at his shoe in the dark, Ray could see about an inch long spark jumping from his shoe down into the large gravel we were standing on. He was startled by this and decided that he had enough scientific lessons for one night. So, we climbed back in the truck and headed back to the plant.

Anyway. During the time that we were having this EMF scare (EMF by the way stands for Electromotive Force), there had been some movie or a 60 Minutes episode on TV about it and it was causing a stir. So, people from Corporate Headquarters were going around trying to educate us about it. One way they did this was to show us how low the levels of EMFs were in the plant.

Well. You can’t convince an electrician that we aren’t constantly being bathed in electricity when we are out in the substation, because we all knew better. This guy came around with a special EMF gun just to show us how the plant was safe… We had a meeting where the engineers agreed that we hardly had any EMFs in the plant. The highest EMFs were found in a drill that mounted horizontally using an electromagnet.

When I heard this, I became skeptical of these findings. And the horizontal drill made me even more suspicious. Not that I minded the EMFs. I found them rather refreshing. They seemed to line up all my thought bubbles in my brain so that I could think better. Kind of like “magnet therapy”.

Then a couple of weeks later my suspicions were verified. Doug Link came down to the electric shop with a guy from Oklahoma City that was going to go with me out to the Substation to measure the EMF levels. — OK. I thought…. Let’s see what happens now… Because I already knew the EMF levels in the Substation just my licking my finger and sticking it in the air…

The guy from Corporate Headquarters took out a roller with a handle much like you would have to measure long distances. Only this had a couple of probes sticking out from either side horizontally. — Now…. Horizontally is the key, and that’s why when they said the Horizontal drill had the most EMFs in the plant, I became suspicious in the first place.

You see…. EMFs have direction. The two probes on the instrument that the man was wheeling around the substation were parallel with the high voltage lines. Therefore, you wouldn’t measure EMFs between the two probes. If the probes had been turned vertically (up and down), I am sure that the voltage (and the EMFs) would have blown the circuitry in the instrument. I say that because the guy that was wheeling this thing around the substation was being very careful not to tilt it one way or the other.

My suspicions were further confirmed when we were in the relay house looking at the results from when he circled the large transformer between the 189 and the 345 subs, and there was a large spike in EMFs at one spot. When we went to look at that spot, it was at the point where the high voltage bus turned down to go into the transformer…. Just like the Horizontal drill…. The direction was across the probes. You see…. EMFs are perpendicular to the flow of electricity. Or straight down from an overhead line. I mean… duh. You had to hold the fluorescent light upright to make it glow….

Well. I thought…. What do I do? Here is a guy trying to pull the wool over our eyes to make us believe that there aren’t any EMFs out there. I felt insulted. On the other hand, I didn’t care about the EMFs. I liked the EMFs. So, after looking at Doug Link straight in the eyes with an astonished look of disbelief that this guy thought we were so gullible to believe this magic act, I decided to let it go. Let him think he relieved our worry that didn’t exist in the first place. Why ruin his day. He had to drive 70 miles back to Corporate Headquarters. Why should he go all that way back thinking that he failed in his mission? So, all I could do was smile.

Anyway. Tim Foster, the 10 year old boy that was with his father, Charles Foster the first time I went to the substation to go switching, later grew up and became an electrician himself. Not only did he become an electrician, but he became an electrician in the same electric shop where his father had worked for 30 years. He works there to this day, and I’m sure that Tim now has an occasion to go switching in the same substation where I first met him. Bathing in the same EMFs. Feeling the same thrill when you open a 345 KV air switch with a loud Pop!

Placed on Light Duty at the Power Plant — Repost

Originally posted July 19, 2013:

In another profession being put on light duty may mean that you don’t have to work as hard as everyone else.  When an electrician is put on light duty it means something else entirely.  I think I calculated the number of lights at the plant and it was well over 10,000 light bulbs in the coal-fired power plant in North Central Oklahoma.  Ideally you would think that everyone of the lights should be in good working order.

Electricians don’t call a light bulb a light.  The light is the fixture.  The bulb is called a “lamp”.  So, for the rest of this post I’ll call the light bulbs lamps.

You may think that it’s pretty straight forward to go change out lights (oh.  I mean… lamps), but it’s not.  You see, it isn’t like in your house where you have the regular light bulbs everywhere with just different shapes and wattage.  Sure, there were different Watts for the different lamps, but for a good number of the lights, they varied by voltage as well.   Not only that, but these lamps were different types of lights.  Most of which are not incandescent (well… now that the government has seen fit to force the lighting industry to stop making incandescent lamps altogether, I guess it wouldn’t seem odd to the younger folks).

A descriptive picture of an Incandescent lamp found at www.techlinea.com

A descriptive picture of an Incandescent lamp found at http://www.techlinea.com

In the office areas and places like the main switchgear 4 foot fluorescent lamps were used.  Each 4 foot fluorescent lamp is 40 watts.  Just because it is 40 watts, it doesn’t mean that the voltage is low.  It can take up to 650 volts to start up a fluorescent lamp.  A Fluorescent lamp actually has a gas in it that causes a coating on the glass to glow when a current flows across the gas.

A fluorescent Lamp

A fluorescent Lamp

Besides the typical fluorescent lamps, the majority of the rest of the lamps in the plant were various sizes of Mercury Vapor lamps.  (now replaced with Sodium Vapor).

Before you become all twisted about using Mercury Vapor to light up a power plant because of the environmental impact, I think I should point out that even though a fluorescent lamp is filled with an inert gas like argon, it is mixed with Mercury vapor as well, and the phosphorous coating on the glass has mercury in it also.  So, if you have fluorescent lamps in your house…. Well, there you go.  And you know those lamps that are used to replace your old incandescent light bulbs….. Yep… and they have other kinds of hazardous metals as well.

The thing about using Fluorescent lamps and Mercury Vapors and Sodium Vapor lamps is that they all use different voltages.  So, in order for them to start up and stay running, the voltages have to change from the start up voltage to the operating voltage.  Each lamp has it’s own transformer designed just for that one type of lamp.  It is placed in the light fixture for the lamp.

You can tell this is a 100 Watt Mercury Vapor lamp because of the 10.  If it had a 25, then it would be a 250 watt lamp.   Following the same logic if it has a 75 on it, then it is a 75 watt lamp..... oh...well.. the logic is there somewhere

You can tell this is a 100 Watt Mercury Vapor lamp because of the 10. If it had a 25, then it would be a 250 watt lamp. Following the same logic if it has a 75 on it, then it is a 75 watt lamp….. oh…well.. the logic is there somewhere

If the light glows blue, then it is mercury vapor.  If it is orange then it is a sodium light.  Your street lights are the same way.  Well.  Now there is also Halogen lamps which shine white.

Besides these different type lamps, we also had some super special lights.  We have the flashing lights on the smoke stack and the red blinking light on the top of the radio tower.  The lights that flash on the smoke stacks are really flashbulbs.

A flash tube used in a smoke stack beacon that can easily be seen 50 miles away at night.  Especially when the day time setting is still on

A flash tube used in a smoke stack beacon that can easily be seen 50 miles away at night. Especially when the day time setting is still on

Our smoke stacks are 500 feet tall with beacons at the 250 foot level and the 500 foot level.  Not only did you have to change out the bulb, but you often had to change out the large capacitors and the circuit boards that had been fried by a passing lightning storm.

You may have heard that with the older style Television sets that had a picture tube (before the flat screen TVs came around), that you could electrocute yourself by taking the cover off the back of the TV and working on it, even though you unplugged the set from the wall before you started.  A few movies used this in the plot.  Robert T. Ironside even used it once in an episode during the first season.

Robert T. Ironside played by Raymond Burr

Robert T. Ironside played by Raymond Burr

Well.  The Stack lights are like that.  When we opened up the light fixture to work on the flash tube or the circuits inside the first thing you did was take a metal rod with a wooden handle and a wire attached with a clip on the end and clipped the wire to the handrail.  Then turning your head the other way, you placed the metal rod across each of the large capacitors in the box.   Invariably, one of the capacitors would let out a loud pop that would echo across the lake…. oh, and leave your ears ringing.

Once the voltage was discharged from all the capacitors, you knew it was safe to go to work fixing the light.  The lights had a day and a night mode, and the difference was how many times the flash tube flashed when it discharged.  What I mean to say is that it wasn’t just one flash.  It is really a series of flashes closely timed to look like one flash.  The number of flashes and the timing between the flashes determine how bright the flash is.

At night the flash was much dimmer because it didn’t need to be so bright.  When it was stuck in the day mode at night the farmers for a 30 mile radius would be calling saying they can’t sleep because every 6 seconds their bedroom would light up as the smoke stack lights would blink.

The Lake on a hill with the power plant in the distance at sunset

The Lake on a hill with the power plant in the distance at sunset

I thought I would just put that picture in there so you could see how pretty the plant looked from across the lake at sunset.  To me it looked like a big ship on the horizon.

I mentioned above that there was a radio tower that had a light on it that needed to be changed when it burned out.  The actual lamp looked a lot like a regular incandescent bulb in your house, but it was different.  It was designed just for this job.  It didn’t burn out very often.  Ok.  I can see your look of disbelief, so here is a picture of one:

A radio tower light bulb

A radio tower light bulb

Yeah, looks just like something in your house.  Doesn’t it?

Anyway.  I changed out the light at the top of our radio tower which is only about 200 feet tall.  It looked like the following picture:

Our tower was like this only it didn't have a safety pole up the side for a lanyard.

Our tower was like this only it didn’t have a safety pole up the side for a lanyard.

I had to climb to the top of this tower to replace the red flashing light.  I was by myself when I did it.  Bill Bennett handed me the bulb that had been specially ordered and asked me if I would do it.  If not, they could call Oklahoma City and have the line crew come down and change it.  I told him I could do it.  The tower wasn’t that tall, and I had shimmied around the top of the smoke stack before at 500 feet with only a slight urge to panic.

I changed the lamp out without incident.  I know that some people have a much more interesting job changing these lights out than I had.  Our radio tower was only 200 feet tall.  Here is a video of someone that had to climb a tower 1768 feet high.  You can see the beacon when they reach the top of this radio tower:

Ok.  That is crazy!  Wouldn’t dropping someone from a helicopter onto the tower using a safety line be safer?

My last story about being on light duty at a power plant is about when Ted Riddle and I were working at the gas-fired power plant near Mustang, Oklahoma.  I talked about the time that Ted and I worked at this plant in the post “Working Power Plant Wonders with Willard Stark

While we were there after they found out that we were electric conduit running fools, they gave us all sorts of jobs running conduit all over the plant.  One job they showed us was in an area that was dark.  All the lights were out in this area.  The foreman explained where the light bulbs were kept.  They were just the regular incandescent lights like the normal lights you would have in your house.

Well… Ted and I had both been put on Light Duty at our plant, and we knew that when we went to change out one light, we were supposed to change out all the lights.  So, Ted and I each grabbed a box and a ladder and headed up to the boiler enclosure to change lights.

After lunch, the foreman came running up to us yelling, “What did you do?  You used up all of the light bulbs!”  Well.  Yes.  We had used up the lights, but now when you go up on the boiler you can see where you are going.  The foreman then explained to us  that this little plant didn’t have the same kind of budget that the new big plants had.  They couldn’t afford to just go around replacing all the lights whenever they burned out.  They only put in a light when someone has to work in that area.  We had lit the entire place up like a Christmas tree.

Ok.  Take a note Jan… Don’t replace all the lights if they are incandescent.

Ok (again), that wasn’t quite the last story.  Let me tell you some more about replacing Fluorescent lamps in our Coal-fired power plant.  When we were placed on Light Duty, we would grab a couple of boxes of 30 lamps from the pallet in the main switchgear and go to work.

In the main switchgear the lights were up high, so we used a 10 foot ladder with a stand on the top of it (No.  I don’t mean like a Deer stand…. geez… Power Plant men…. always thinkin’ ’bout huntin’).  Actually it is called a Platform ladder:

This is a 6 foot platform ladder.  Ours was 10 foot and very wobbly

This is a solid 6 foot platform ladder. Ours was 10 foot and very wobbly

I didn’t like using this wobbly ladder when I was by myself.  besides being wobbly, the thing weighed a ton.  So, I would take a smaller ladder and put it on top of the breaker cabinets and climb on top of them.  The only problem here was that I couldn’t get directly under the lights, so I would end up reaching out to one side to change a light while I was standing on a ladder on top of a seven foot cabinet.  Not a pretty sight if someone safety minded walked in.

I felt safer doing this than standing way up in the air on a 10 foot wobbly platform ladder.  I always had the feeling that if I sneezed, the ladder would topple over.

When we were done changing out fluorescent lamps, we usually had a stack of boxes of burned out lamps.  We couldn’t just throw them in the dumpster because they were a safety hazard as they were.  We had to break each bulb.  We found that we could take a box of 4 foot fluorescent lamps and back the truck over it and it would let out a low but loud boom that sounded like a cannon going off.

The ingenious electricians invented a bulb busting barrel where you slid one 4 foot bulb into a tube and then lifted a handle quickly, and it would explode the lamp in the safe confines of the metal barrel.  The end of the lamp may at times come shooting out the end of the tube, so you never wanted to be standing to that side of the barrel.  I would show you a picture of one, but I’ve never found another one like it.

So, if you were into breaking glass, this was the best part of being placed on Light Duty.  After a hard day of changing out lamps all over the plant, you could stand around in front of the electric shop and slide the lamps down a tube like mortar shell and pull the rod and…. Boom! A puff of Mercury Vapor released into the atmosphere a small cloud of dust…. repeat.

Switching in the Power Plant Substation Switchyard — Repost

Originally posted on February 9, 2013:

The phone rang Saturday morning on March 17, 1984. Since we didn’t have caller ID at that time, I had to pick up the phone to tell who was on the other end. It was my foreman Charles Foster. He said he needed to go out to the plant to do some switching in the substation and he needed someone to help him. I had been an electrician for all of 5 months and this was the first time I had been involved with switching in the substation.

When I arrived at the plant 30 minutes later, the operators in the control room were busy putting Unit 1 online. Charles Foster had brought along his son Tim Foster. Tim was about 10 years old at the time. The operators didn’t have any certified switchmen available, and so the Shift Supervisor, Jim Padgett gave the go ahead for me to go with Charles and act as the “secondary” switchman. That is, I was the one that read and re-read the instructions while Charles would actually crank the switches.

Here is a picture of a typical substation you might run across:

Parts of a Typical Substation

Parts of a Typical Substation

I found this picture on the Department of Labor website. The Main substation at the power plant was much bigger than this one. Half of the substation was the 189,000 volt substation the other half was the 345,000 volt substation. For the particular switching that we were doing that day, we were in the 189 KV end of the substation. This is where Unit 1 fed power to the world.

This was my first experience doing something in the substation other than sub inspections and Transfer Trip and Carrier tests. I was a little surprised when Charles closed one of the air break switches and there was a loud crackling sound as an arc of electricity jumped from one switch to the next. Charles told me that was nothing. Just wait until I close the main switch from the transformer on Unit 2 in the 345 KV sub up the hill.

He was right. Later when I first opened that switch, it drew an arc about 3 feet long before it broke the circuit with a loud pop. You could hear the echo of the booming arc as the sound bounced off the nearby hills…..um…. if there had been hills… It was pretty flat…. being Oklahoma and all. I suppose it was bouncing off of the Power Plant and maybe some trees off in the distance. Well. Anyway. It did echo for a while.

After my first experience in the substation, I decided that substations were one of the neatest places to be. I later became certified as a switchman (multiple times, as you had to renew your certification every 2 or 3 years). Eventually becoming a Switchman trainer. Later when I was with my girlfriend, and even after she became my wife, and we would drive by a substation, I had to be careful not to run off the road since I was usually straining my neck to get a closer look at the substation.

This would result in Kelly become agitated (jokingly of course) that I was paying more attention to the substations than her. To this day, when we pass a substation, my wife Kelly will still let out a “hmmph” when I exaggeratedly ogle a passing substation. I mean…. Can you blame me?

Don't Substations look cool?

Don’t Substations look cool?

Well. Throughout the years, Substation switching became more an more safe. When I first began switching, we would just wear High Voltage rubber gloves and maybe a face shield. Later we had to wear an Arc Flash Protective suit just in case something blew up:

An Arc Flash Protector

An Arc Flash Protector (that’s a pretty creepy looking guy in there)

One time one of the switches broke and exploded in the 345 KV substation and we found a large piece of insulator 200 yards away. This suit wasn’t going to protect you from that. It was only going to keep you from being burned if there was a flash explosion.

In the early 1990’s there was what was known as the “EMF Scare”. That was the belief that the high voltage electric lines caused Leukemia. It was true that children in cities that lived near high voltage electric lines had a higher risk of having Leukemia than the general population. It also happened that these High Voltage lines ran right down major roadways, so that these same children were breathing a lot more exhaust from the cars and trucks on the road than your average person also.

Anyway. When we worked in the substation we all knew that we were being bathed in electricity. If I took my volt meter and dropped one end to the ground and held the other end up by my head, it would peg my meter out at 1000 volts. One day in the evening when it was time to go home, Scott Hubbard and I were delayed because a fuse block had burned up in a breaker panel in the 345 KV substation.

It was drizzling at the time, so you could hear the electricity about 30 feet above our heads crackling and popping. Scott and I were standing behind the pickup truck looking for spare parts in my tool bucket and I had poured out some nuts, bolts and screws onto the bed of the truck. As we were sifting through them looking for the parts we needed, both of us were thinking that I must have had some metal shavings mixed in with the nuts and bolts. When we would move them around we kept feeling like we were being stabbed by metal shavings….. It turned out that it was just sparks jumping from the truck to our fingers.

10 years after my first encounter in a substation, while I was on the Confined Space Rescue team, we had to be out at the plant at night because some people were working in the condenser and the Confined Space Rescue team had to be on site. So, while we were there, we were doing things like cleaning up shop and stuff. Ray Eberle was working with me, and he asked me if I had ever heard about holding up a fluorescent light in a substation and having it glow.

I told him that I had, and it does glow. We went to the electric shop where I retrieved a couple of new 4 foot fluorescent lamps and we headed to the 345 KV substation around midnight.

When we arrived, we climbed out of the truck, and I demonstrated how just by holding the fluorescent tube upright, it would light up:

Holding up Flourescent tubes under high voltage lines

Holding up Flourescent tubes under high voltage lines

Ray was fascinated by this, and was noticing how the tube would light up from the point where you were holding the tube on up. As he was experimenting with this new found knowledge, there was an odd popping sound that would occur about every 5 seconds. I was standing there watching Ray in the dark. Ray finally asked me…. “Where is that popping sound coming from?” I pointed down to his shoes and said. “There are sparking jumping from you shoe down to the ground.”

Looking down at his shoe in the dark, Ray could see about an inch long spark jumping from his shoe down into the large gravel we were standing on. He was startled by this and decided that he had enough scientific lessons for one night. So, we climbed back in the truck and headed back to the plant.

Anyway. During the time that we were having this EMF scare (EMF by the way stands for Electromotive Force), there had been some movie or a 60 Minutes episode on TV about it and it was causing a stir. So, people from Corporate Headquarters were going around trying to educate us about it. One way they did this was to show us how low the levels of EMFs were in the plant.

Well. You can’t convince an electrician that we aren’t constantly being bathed in electricity when we are out in the substation, because we all knew better. This guy came around with a special EMF gun just to show us how the plant was safe… We had a meeting where the engineers agreed that we hardly had any EMFs in the plant. The highest EMFs were found in a drill that mounted horizontally using an electromagnet.

When I heard this, I became skeptical of these findings. And the horizontal drill made me even more suspicious. Not that I minded the EMFs. I found them rather refreshing. They seemed to line up all my thought bubbles in my brain so that I could think better. Kind of like “magnet therapy”.

Then a couple of weeks later my suspicions were verified. Doug Link came down to the electric shop with a guy from Oklahoma City that was going to go with me out to the Substation to measure the EMF levels. — OK. I thought…. Let’s see what happens now… Because I already knew the EMF levels in the Substation just my licking my finger and sticking it in the air…

The guy from Corporate Headquarters took out a roller with a handle much like you would have to measure long distances. Only this had a couple of probes sticking out from either side horizontally. — Now…. Horizontally is the key, and that’s why when they said the Horizontal drill had the most EMFs in the plant, I became suspicious in the first place.

You see…. EMFs have direction. The two probes on the instrument that the man was wheeling around the substation were parallel with the high voltage lines. Therefore, you wouldn’t measure EMFs between the two probes. If the probes had been turned vertically (up and down), I am sure that the voltage (and the EMFs) would have blown the circuitry in the instrument. I say that because the guy that was wheeling this thing around the substation was being very careful not to tilt it one way or the other.

My suspicions were further confirmed when we were in the relay house looking at the results from when he circled the large transformer between the 189 and the 345 subs, and there was a large spike in EMFs at one spot. When we went to look at that spot, it was at the point where the high voltage bus turned down to go into the transformer…. Just like the Horizontal drill…. The direction was across the probes. You see…. EMFs are perpendicular to the flow of electricity. Or straight down from an overhead line. I mean… duh. You had to hold the fluorescent light upright to make it glow….

Well. I thought…. What do I do? Here is a guy trying to pull the wool over our eyes to make us believe that there aren’t any EMFs out there. I felt insulted. On the other hand, I didn’t care about the EMFs. I liked the EMFs. So, after looking at Doug Link straight in the eyes with an astonished look of disbelief that this guy thought we were so gullible to believe this magic act, I decided to let it go. Let him think he relieved our worry that didn’t exist in the first place. Why ruin his day. He had to drive 70 miles back to Corporate Headquarters. Why should he go all that way back thinking that he failed in his mission? So, all I could do was smile.

Anyway. Tim Foster, the 10 year old boy that was with his father, Charles Foster the first time I went to the substation to go switching, later grew up and became an electrician himself. Not only did he become an electrician, but he became an electrician in the same electric shop where his father had worked for 30 years. He works there to this day, and I’m sure that Tim now has an occasion to go switching in the same substation where I first met him. Bathing in the same EMFs. Feeling the same thrill when you open a 345 KV air switch with a loud Pop!

Placed on Light Duty at the Power Plant

In another profession being put on light duty may mean that you don’t have to work as hard as everyone else.  When an electrician is put on light duty it means something else entirely.  I think I calculated the number of lights at the plant and it was well over 10,000 light bulbs in the coal-fired power plant in North Central Oklahoma.  Ideally you would think that everyone of the lights should be in good working order.

Electricians don’t call a light bulb a light.  The light is the fixture.  The bulb is called a “lamp”.  So, for the rest of this post I’ll call the light bulbs lamps.

You may think that it’s pretty straight forward to go change out lights (oh.  I mean… lamps), but it’s not.  You see, it isn’t like in your house where you have the regular light bulbs everywhere with just different shapes and wattage.  Sure, there were different Watts for the different lamps, but for a good number of the lights, they varied by voltage as well.   Not only that, but these lamps were different types of lights.  Most of which are not incandescent (well… now that the government has seen fit to force the lighting industry to stop making incandescent lamps altogether, I guess it wouldn’t seem odd to the younger folks).

A descriptive picture of an Incandescent lamp found at www.techlinea.com

A descriptive picture of an Incandescent lamp found at http://www.techlinea.com

In the office areas and places like the main switchgear 4 foot fluorescent lamps were used.  Each 4 foot fluorescent lamp is 40 watts.  Just because it is 40 watts, it doesn’t mean that the voltage is low.  It can take up to 650 volts to start up a fluorescent lamp.  A Fluorescent lamp actually has a gas in it that causes a coating on the glass to glow when a current flows across the gas.

A fluorescent Lamp

A fluorescent Lamp

Besides the typical fluorescent lamps, the majority of the rest of the lamps in the plant were various sizes of Mercury Vapor lamps.  (now replaced with Sodium Vapor).

Before you become all twisted about using Mercury Vapor to light up a power plant because of the environmental impact, I think I should point out that even though a fluorescent lamp is filled with an inert gas like argon, it is mixed with Mercury vapor as well, and the phosphorous coating on the glass has mercury in it also.  So, if you have fluorescent lamps in your house…. Well, there you go.  And you know those lamps that are used to replace your old incandescent light bulbs….. Yep… and they have other kinds of hazardous metals as well.

The thing about using Fluorescent lamps and Mercury Vapors and Sodium Vapor lamps is that they all use different voltages.  So, in order for them to start up and stay running, the voltages have to change from the start up voltage to the operating voltage.  Each lamp has it’s own transformer designed just for that one type of lamp.  It is placed in the light fixture for the lamp.

You can tell this is a 100 Watt Mercury Vapor lamp because of the 10.  If it had a 25, then it would be a 250 watt lamp.   Following the same logic if it has a 75 on it, then it is a 75 watt lamp..... oh...well.. the logic is there somewhere

You can tell this is a 100 Watt Mercury Vapor lamp because of the 10. If it had a 25, then it would be a 250 watt lamp. Following the same logic if it has a 75 on it, then it is a 75 watt lamp….. oh…well.. the logic is there somewhere

If the light glows blue, then it is mercury vapor.  If it is orange then it is a sodium light.  Your street lights are the same way.  Well.  Now there is also Halogen lamps which shine white.

Besides these different type lamps, we also had some super special lights.  We have the flashing lights on the smoke stack and the red blinking light on the top of the radio tower.  The lights that flash on the smoke stacks are really flashbulbs.

A flash tube used in a smoke stack beacon that can easily be seen 50 miles away at night.  Especially when the day time setting is still on

A flash tube used in a smoke stack beacon that can easily be seen 50 miles away at night. Especially when the day time setting is still on

Our smoke stacks are 500 feet tall with beacons at the 250 foot level and the 500 foot level.  Not only did you have to change out the bulb, but you often had to change out the large capacitors and the circuit boards that had been fried by a passing lightning storm.

You may have heard that with the older style Television sets that had a picture tube (before the flat screen TVs came around), that you could electrocute yourself by taking the cover off the back of the TV and working on it, even though you unplugged the set from the wall before you started.  A few movies used this in the plot.  Robert T. Ironside even used it once in an episode during the first season.

Well.  The Stack lights are like that.  When we opened up the light fixture to work on the flash tube or the circuits inside the first thing you did was take a metal rod with a wooden handle and a wire attached with a clip on the end and clipped the wire to the handrail.  Then turning your head the other way, you placed the metal rod across each of the large capacitors in the box.   Invariably, one of the capacitors would let out a loud pop that would echo across the lake…. oh, and leave your ears ringing.

Once the voltage was discharged from all the capacitors, you knew it was safe to go to work fixing the light.  The lights had a day and a night mode, and the difference was how many times the flash tube flashed when it discharged.  What I mean to say is that it wasn’t just one flash.  It is really a series of flashes closely timed to look like one flash.  The number of flashes and the timing between the flashes determine how bright the flash is.

At night the flash was much dimmer because it didn’t need to be so bright.  When it was stuck in the day mode at night the farmers for a 30 mile radius would be calling saying they can’t sleep because every 6 seconds their bedroom would light up as the smoke stack lights would blink.

The Lake on a hill with the power plant in the distance at sunset

The Lake on a hill with the power plant in the distance at sunset

I thought I would just put that picture in there so you could see how pretty the plant looked from across the lake at sunset.  To me it looked like a big ship on the horizon.

I mentioned above that there was a radio tower that had a light on it that needed to be changed when it burned out.  The actual lamp looked a lot like a regular incandescent bulb in your house, but it was different.  It was designed just for this job.  It didn’t burn out very often.  Ok.  I can see your look of disbelief, so here is a picture of one:

A radio tower light bulb

A radio tower light bulb

Yeah, looks just like something in your house.  Doesn’t it?

Anyway.  I changed out the light at the top of our radio tower which is only about 200 feet tall.  It looked like the following picture:

Our tower was like this only it didn't have a safety pole up the side for a lanyard.

Our tower was like this only it didn’t have a safety pole up the side for a lanyard.

I had to climb to the top of this tower to replace the red flashing light.  I was by myself when I did it.  Bill Bennett handed me the bulb that had been specially ordered and asked me if I would do it.  If not, they could call Oklahoma City and have the line crew come down and change it.  I told him I could do it.  The tower wasn’t that tall, and I had shimmied around the top of the smoke stack before at 500 feet with only a slight urge to panic.

I changed the lamp out without incident.  I know that some people have a much more interesting job changing these lights out than I had.  Our radio tower was only 200 feet tall.  Here is a video of someone that had to climb a tower 1768 feet high.  You can see the beacon when they reach the top of this radio tower:

Ok.  That is crazy!  Wouldn’t dropping someone from a helicopter onto the tower using a safety line be safer?

My last story about being on light duty at a power plant is about when Ted Riddle and I were working at the gas-fired power plant near Mustang, Oklahoma.  I talked about the time that Ted and I worked at this plant in the post “Working Power Plant Wonders with Willard Stark

While we were there after they found out that we were electric conduit running fools, they gave us all sorts of jobs running conduit all over the plant.  One job they showed us was in an area that was dark.  All the lights were out in this area.  The foreman explained where the light bulbs were kept.  They were just the regular incandescent lights like the normal lights you would have in your house.

Well… Ted and I had both been put on Light Duty at our plant, and we knew that when we went to change out one light, we were supposed to change out all the lights.  So, Ted and I each grabbed a box and a ladder and headed up to the boiler enclosure to change lights.

After lunch, the foreman came running up to us yelling, “What did you do?  You used up all of the light bulbs!”  Well.  Yes.  We had used up the lights, but now when you go up on the boiler you can see where you are going.  The foreman then explained to us  that this little plant didn’t have the same kind of budget that the new big plants had.  They couldn’t afford to just go around replacing all the lights whenever they burned out.  They only put in a light when someone has to work in that area.  We had lit the entire place up like a Christmas tree.

Ok.  Take a note Jan… Don’t replace all the lights if they are incandescent.

Ok (again), that wasn’t quite the last story.  Let me tell you some more about replacing Fluorescent lamps in our Coal-fired power plant.  When we were placed on Light Duty, we would grab a couple of boxes of 30 lamps from the pallet in the main switchgear and go to work.

In the main switchgear the lights were up high, so we used a 10 foot ladder with a stand on the top of it (No.  I don’t mean like a Deer stand…. geez… Power Plant men…. always thinkin’ ’bout huntin’).  Actually it is called a Platform ladder:

This is a 6 foot platform ladder.  Ours was 10 foot and very wobbly

This is a solid 6 foot platform ladder. Ours was 10 foot and very wobbly

I didn’t like using this wobbly ladder when I was by myself.  besides being wobbly, the thing weighed a ton.  So, I would take a smaller ladder and put it on top of the breaker cabinets and climb on top of them.  The only problem here was that I couldn’t get directly under the lights, so I would end up reaching out to one side to change a light while I was standing on a ladder on top of a seven foot cabinet.  Not a pretty sight if someone safety minded walked in.

I felt safer doing this than standing way up in the air on a 10 foot wobbly platform ladder.  I always had the feeling that if I sneezed, the ladder would topple over.

When we were done changing out fluorescent lamps, we usually had a stack of boxes of burned out lamps.  We couldn’t just throw them in the dumpster because they were a safety hazard as they were.  We had to break each bulb.  We found that we could take a box of 4 foot fluorescent lamps and back the truck over it and it would let out a low but loud boom that sounded like a cannon going off.

The ingenious electricians invented a bulb busting barrel where you slid one 4 foot bulb into a tube and then lifted a handle quickly, and it would explode the lamp in the safe confines of the metal barrel.  The end of the lamp may at times come shooting out the end of the tube, so you never wanted to be standing to that side of the barrel.  I would show you a picture of one, but I’ve never found another one like it.

So, if you were into breaking glass, this was the best part of being placed on Light Duty.  After a hard day of changing out lamps all over the plant, you could stand around in front of the electric shop and slide the lamps down a tube like mortar shell and pull the rod and…. Boom! A puff of Mercury Vapor released into the atmosphere a small cloud of dust…. repeat.

Switching in the Power Plant Substation Switchyard

The phone rang Saturday morning on March 17, 1984.  Since we didn’t have caller ID at that time, I had to pick up the phone to tell who was on the other end.  It was my foreman Charles Foster.  He said he needed to go out to the plant to do some switching in the substation and he needed someone to help him.  I had been an electrician for all of 5 months and this was the first time I had been involved with switching in the substation.

When I arrived at the plant 30 minutes later, the operators in the control room were busy putting Unit 1 online.  Charles Foster had brought along his son Tim Foster.  Tim was about 10 years old at the time.  The operators didn’t have any certified switchmen available, and so the Shift Supervisor, Jim Padgett gave the go ahead for me to go with Charles and act as the “secondary” switchman.  That is, I was the one that read and re-read the instructions while Charles would actually crank the switches.

Here is a picture of a typical substation you might run across:

Parts of a Typical Substation

Parts of a Typical Substation

I found this picture on the Department of Labor website.  The Main substation at the power plant was much bigger than this one.  Half of the substation was the 189,000 volt substation the other half was the 345,000 volt substation.   For the particular switching that we were doing that day, we were in the 189 KV end of the substation.  This is where Unit 1 fed power to the world.

This was my first experience doing something in the substation other than sub inspections and Transfer Trip and Carrier tests.  I was a little surprised when Charles closed one of the air break switches and there was a loud crackling sound as an arc of electricity jumped from one switch to the next.  Charles told me that was nothing.  Just wait until I close the main switch from the transformer on Unit 2 in the 345 KV sub up the hill.

He was right.  Later when I first opened that switch, it drew an arc about 3 feet long before it broke the circuit with a loud pop.  You could hear the echo of the booming arc as the sound bounced off the nearby hills…..um…. if there had been hills… It was pretty flat…. being Oklahoma and all.  I suppose it was bouncing off of the Power Plant and maybe some trees off in the distance.  Well.  Anyway.  It did echo for a while.

After my first experience in the substation, I decided that substations were one of the neatest places to be.  I later became certified as a switchman (multiple times, as you had to renew your certification every 2 or 3 years).  Eventually becoming a Switchman trainer.  Later when I was with my girlfriend, and even after she became my wife, and we would drive by a substation, I had to be careful not to run off the road since I was usually straining my neck to get a closer look at the substation.

This would result in Kelly become agitated (jokingly of course) that I was paying more attention to the substations than her.  To this day, when we pass a substation, my wife Kelly will still let out a “hmmph” when I exaggeratedly ogle a passing substation.  I mean…. Can you blame me?

Don't Substations look cool?

Don’t Substations look cool?

Well.  Throughout the years, Substation switching became more an more safe.  When I first began switching, we would just wear High Voltage rubber gloves and maybe a face shield.  Later we had to wear an Arc Flash Protective suit just in case something blew up:

An Arc Flash Protector

An Arc Flash Protector (that’s a pretty creepy looking guy in there)

One time one of the switches broke and exploded in the 345 KV substation and we found a large piece of insulator 200 yards away.  This suit wasn’t going to protect you from that.  It was only going to keep you from being burned if there was a flash explosion.

In the early 1990’s there was what was known as the “EMF Scare”.  That was the belief that the high voltage electric lines caused Leukemia.  It was true that children in cities that lived near high voltage electric lines had a higher risk of having Leukemia than the general population.  It also happened that these High Voltage lines ran right down major roadways, so that these same children were breathing a lot more exhaust from the cars and trucks on the road than your average person also.

Anyway.  When we worked in the substation we all knew that we were being bathed in electricity.  If I took my volt meter and dropped one end to the ground and held the other end up by my head, it would peg my  meter out at 1000 volts.  One day in the evening when it was time to go home, Scott Hubbard and I were delayed because a fuse block had burned up in a breaker panel in the 345 KV substation.

It was drizzling at the time, so you could hear the electricity about 30 feet above our heads crackling and popping.  Scott and I were standing behind the pickup truck looking for spare parts in my tool bucket and I had poured out some nuts, bolts and screws onto the bed of the truck.  As we were sifting through them looking for the parts we needed, both of us were thinking that I must have had some metal shavings mixed in with the nuts and bolts.  When we would move them around we kept feeling like we were being stabbed by metal shavings…..  It turned out that it was just sparks jumping from the truck to our fingers.

10 years after my first encounter in a substation, while I was on the Confined Space Rescue team, we had to be out at the plant at night because some people were working in the condenser and the Confined Space Rescue team had to be on site.  So, while we were there, we were doing things like cleaning up shop and stuff.  Ray Eberle was working with me, and he asked me if I had ever heard about holding up a fluorescent light in a substation and having it glow.

I told him that I had, and it does glow.  We went to the electric shop where I retrieved a couple of new 4 foot fluorescent lamps and we headed to the 345 KV substation around midnight.

When we arrived, we climbed out of the truck, and I demonstrated how just by holding the fluorescent tube upright, it would light up:

Holding up Flourescent tubes under high voltage lines

Holding up Flourescent tubes under high voltage lines

Ray was fascinated by this, and was noticing how the tube would light up from the point where you were holding the tube on up.  As he was experimenting with this new found knowledge, there was an odd popping sound that would occur about every 5 seconds.  I was standing there watching Ray in the dark.  Ray finally asked me…. “Where is that popping sound coming from?”  I pointed down to his shoes and said.  “There are sparking jumping from you shoe down to the ground.”

Looking down at his shoe in the dark, Ray could see about an inch long spark jumping from his shoe down into the large gravel we were standing on.  He was startled by this and decided that he had enough scientific lessons for one night.  So, we climbed back in the truck and headed back to the plant.

Anyway.  During the time that we were having this EMF scare (EMF by the way stands for Electromotive Force), there had been some movie or a 60 Minutes episode on TV about it and it was causing a stir.  So, people from Corporate Headquarters were going around trying to educate us about it.  One way they did this was to show us how low the levels of EMFs were in the plant.

Well.  You can’t convince an electrician that we aren’t constantly being bathed in electricity when we are out in the substation, because we all knew better.  This guy came around with a special EMF gun just to show us how the plant was safe…  We had a meeting where the engineers agreed that we hardly had any EMFs in the plant.  The highest EMFs were found in a drill that mounted horizontally using an electromagnet.

When I heard this, I became skeptical of these findings.  And the horizontal drill made me even more suspicious.  Not that I minded the EMFs.  I found them rather refreshing.  They seemed to line up all my thought bubbles in my brain so that I could think better.  Kind of like “magnet therapy”.

Then a couple of weeks later my suspicions were verified.  Doug Link came down to the electric shop with a guy from Oklahoma City that was going to go with me out to the Substation to measure the EMF levels.  — OK.  I thought…. Let’s see what happens now…  Because I already knew the EMF levels in the Substation just my licking my finger and sticking it in the air…

The guy from Corporate Headquarters took out a roller with a handle much like you would have to measure long distances.  Only this had a couple of probes sticking out from either side horizontally.  — Now…. Horizontally is the key, and that’s why when they said the Horizontal drill had the most EMFs in the plant, I became suspicious in the first place.

You see…. EMFs have direction.  The two probes on the instrument that the man was wheeling around the substation were parallel with the high voltage lines.  Therefore, you wouldn’t measure EMFs between the two probes.  If the probes had been turned vertically (up and down), I am sure that the voltage (and the EMFs) would have blown the circuitry in the instrument.  I say that because the guy that was wheeling this thing around the substation was being very careful not to tilt it one way or the other.

My suspicions were further confirmed when we were in the relay house looking at the results from when he circled the large transformer between the 189 and the 345 subs, and there was a large spike in EMFs at one spot.   When we went to look at that spot, it was at the point where the high voltage bus turned down to go into the transformer…. Just like the Horizontal drill….  The direction was across the probes.  You see…. EMFs are perpendicular to the flow of electricity.  Or straight down from an overhead line.  I mean… duh.  You had to hold the fluorescent light upright to make it glow….

Well.  I thought…. What do I do?  Here is a guy trying to pull the wool over our eyes to make us believe that there aren’t any EMFs out there.  I felt insulted.  On the other hand, I didn’t care about the EMFs.  I liked the EMFs.  So,  after looking at Doug Link straight in the eyes with an astonished look of disbelief that this guy thought we were so gullible to believe this magic act, I decided to let it go.  Let him think he relieved our worry that didn’t exist in the first place.  Why ruin his day.  He had to drive 70 miles back to Corporate Headquarters.  Why should he go all that way back thinking that he failed in his mission?  So, all I could do was smile.

Anyway.  Tim Foster, the 10 year old boy that was with his father, Charles Foster the first time I went to the substation to go switching, later grew up and became an electrician himself.  Not only did he become an electrician, but he became an electrician in the same electric shop where his father had worked for 30 years.  He works there to this day, and I’m sure that Tim now has an occasion to go switching in the same substation where I first met him.  Bathing in the same EMFs.  Feeling the same thrill when you open a 345 KV air switch with a loud Pop!