**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**720

# Search results for: electric charge

##### 720 Understanding Charge Dynamics in Elastomers Adopting Pulsed Electro Acoustic (PEA) Technique

**Authors:**
R. Sarathi,
M. G. Danikas,
Y. Chen,
T. Tanaka

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Pulsed electro acoustic technique,
space charge,
DCvoltage,
elastomers,
Electric field,
high voltage.

##### 719 Space Charge Distribution in 22 kV XLPE Insulated Cable by Using Pulse Electroacoustic Measurement Technique

**Authors:**
N. Ruangkajonmathee,
R. Thiamsri,
B. Marungsri

**Abstract:**

This paper presents the experimental results on space charge distribution in cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) insulating material for 22 kV power distribution system cable by using pulse electroacoustic measurement technique (PEA). Numbers of XLPE insulating material ribbon having thickness 60 μm taken from unused 22 kV high voltage cable were used as specimen in this study. DC electric field stress was applied to test specimen at room temperature (25°C). Four levels of electric field stress, 25 kV/mm, 50 kV/mm, 75 kV/mm and 100 kV/mm, were used. In order to investigate space charge distribution characteristic, space charge distribution characteristics were measured after applying electric field stress 15 min, 30 min and 60 min, respectively. The results show that applied time and magnitude of dc electric field stress play an important role to the formation of space charge.

**Keywords:**
Space charge distribution,
pulsed electroacoustic(PEA) technique,
cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE),
DC electrical fields stress.

##### 718 Double Layer Polarization and Non-Linear Electroosmosis in and around a Charged Permeable Aggregate

**Authors:**
Partha P. Gopmandal,
S. Bhattacharyya

**Abstract:**

We have studied the migration of a charged permeable aggregate in electrolyte under the influence of an axial electric field and pressure gradient. The migration of the positively charged aggregate leads to a deformation of the anionic cloud around it. The hydrodynamics of the aggregate is governed by the interaction of electroosmotic flow in and around the particle, hydrodynamic friction and electric force experienced by the aggregate. We have computed the non-linear Nernest-Planck equations coupled with the Dracy- Brinkman extended Navier-Stokes equations and Poisson equation for electric field through a finite volume method. The permeability of the aggregate enable the counterion penetration. The penetration of counterions depends on the volume charge density of the aggregate and ionic concentration of electrolytes at a fixed field strength. The retardation effect due to the double layer polarization increases the drag force compared to an uncharged aggregate. Increase in migration sped from the electrophretic velocity of the aggregate produces further asymmetry in charge cloud and reduces the electric body force exerted on the particle. The permeability of the particle have relatively little influence on the electric body force when Double layer is relatively thin. The impact of the key parameters of electrokinetics on the hydrodynamics of the aggregate is analyzed.

**Keywords:**
Electrophoresis,
Advective flow,
Polarization effect,
Numerical solution.

##### 717 Modeling and Simulation of Standalone Photovoltaic Charging Stations for Electric Vehicles

**Authors:**
R. Mkahl,
A. Nait-Sidi-Moh,
M. Wack

**Abstract:**

Batteries of electric vehicles (BEV) are becoming more attractive with the advancement of new battery technologies and promotion of electric vehicles. BEV batteries are recharged on board vehicles using either the grid (G2V for Grid to Vehicle) or renewable energies in a stand-alone application (H2V for Home to Vehicle). This paper deals with the modeling, sizing and control of a photovoltaic stand-alone application that can charge the BEV at home. The modeling approach and developed mathematical models describing the system components are detailed. Simulation and experimental results are presented and commented.

**Keywords:**
Electric vehicles,
photovoltaic energy,
lead-acid
batteries,
charging process,
modeling,
simulation,
experimental tests.

##### 716 Numerical Simulation of Plasma Actuator Using OpenFOAM

**Authors:**
H. Yazdani,
K. Ghorbanian

**Abstract:**

This paper deals with modeling and simulation of the plasma actuator with OpenFOAM. Plasma actuator is one of the newest devices in flow control techniques which can delay separation by inducing external momentum to the boundary layer of the flow. The effects of the plasma actuators on the external flow are incorporated into Navier-Stokes computations as a body force vector which is obtained as a product of the net charge density and the electric field. In order to compute this body force vector, the model solves two equations: One for the electric field due to the applied AC voltage at the electrodes and the other for the charge density representing the ionized air. The simulation result is compared to the experimental and typical values which confirms the validity of the modeling.

**Keywords:**
Active flow control,
flow field,
OpenFOAM,
plasma actuator.

##### 715 Charge-Pump with a Regulated Cascode Circuit for Reducing Current Mismatch in PLLs

**Authors:**
Jae Hyung Noh,
Hang Geun Jeong

**Abstract:**

The charge-pump circuit is an important component in a phase-locked loop (PLL). The charge-pump converts Up and Down signals from the phase/frequency detector (PFD) into current. A conventional CMOS charge-pump circuit consists of two switched current sources that pump charge into or out of the loop filter according to two logical inputs. The mismatch between the charging current and the discharging current causes phase offset and reference spurs in a PLL. We propose a new charge-pump circuit to reduce the current mismatch by using a regulated cascode circuit. The proposed charge-pump circuit is designed and simulated by spectre with TSMC 0.18-μm 1.8-V CMOS technology.

**Keywords:**
Phase-locked loop (PLL),
charge-pump,
phase/frequency detector (PFD),
regulated cascode.

##### 714 Energy Management System in HEV Using PI Controller

**Authors:**
S. Saravanan,
G. Sugumaran

**Abstract:**

Nowadays the use of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) is increasing dramatically. The HEV is mainly dependent on electricity and there is always a need for storage of charge. Fuel Cell (FC), Batteries and Ultra Capacitor are being used for the proposed HEV as an electric power source or as an energy storage unit. The aim of developing an energy management technique is to utilize the sources according to the requirement of the vehicle with help of controller. This increases the efficiency of hybrid electric vehicle to reduce the fuel consumption and unwanted emission. The Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) in FC is done using (Perturb & Observe) algorithm. In this paper, the control of automobiles at variable speed is achieved effectively.

**Keywords:**
Batteries,
Energy Management System (EMS),
Fuel Cell (FC),
Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs),
Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT).

##### 713 Nondestructive Electrochemical Testing Method for Prestressed Concrete Structures

**Authors:**
Tomoko Fukuyama,
Osamu Senbu

**Abstract:**

Prestressed concrete is used a lot in infrastructures such as roads or bridges. However, poor grout filling and PC steel corrosion are currently major issues of prestressed concrete structures. One of the problems with nondestructive corrosion detection of PC steel is a plastic pipe which covers PC steel. The insulative property of pipe makes a nondestructive diagnosis difficult; therefore a practical technology to detect these defects is necessary for the maintenance of infrastructures. The goal of the research is a development of an electrochemical technique which enables to detect internal defects from the surface of prestressed concrete nondestructively. Ideally, the measurements should be conducted from the surface of structural members to diagnose non-destructively. In the present experiment, a prestressed concrete member is simplified as a layered specimen to simulate a current path between an input and an output electrode on a member surface. The specimens which are layered by mortar and the prestressed concrete constitution materials (steel, polyethylene, stainless steel, or galvanized steel plates) were provided to the alternating current impedance measurement. The magnitude of an applied electric field was 0.01-volt or 1-volt, and the frequency range was from 106 Hz to 10-2 Hz. The frequency spectrums of impedance, which relate to charge reactions activated by an electric field, were measured to clarify the effects of the material configurations or the properties. In the civil engineering field, the Nyquist diagram is popular to analyze impedance and it is a good way to grasp electric relaxation using a shape of the plot. However, it is slightly not suitable to figure out an influence of a measurement frequency which is reciprocal of reaction time. Hence, Bode diagram is also applied to describe charge reactions in the present paper. From the experiment results, the alternating current impedance method looks to be applicable to the insulative material measurement and eventually prestressed concrete diagnosis. At the same time, the frequency spectrums of impedance show the difference of the material configuration. This is because the charge mobility reflects the variety of substances and also the measuring frequency of the electric field determines migration length of charges which are under the influence of the electric field. However, it could not distinguish the differences of the material thickness and is inferred the difficulties of prestressed concrete diagnosis to identify the amount of an air void or a layer of corrosion product by the technique.

**Keywords:**
Prestressed concrete,
electric charge,
impedance,
phase shift.

##### 712 Modeling Electric Field Distribution on Insulator under Electron Bombardment in Vacuum

**Authors:**
A.G.E. Sutjipto,
Jufriadi,
R. Muhida,
Afzeri,
E.Y. Adesta

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Flashover,
SEM,
Electron Bombardment,
Electric
Field.

##### 711 Design and Development of Real-Time Optimal Energy Management System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

**Authors:**
Masood Roohi,
Amir Taghavipour

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Hybrid electric vehicles,
energy management system,
nonlinear model predictive control,
real-time.

##### 710 Effective Charge Coupling in Low Dimensional Doped Quantum Antiferromagnets

**Authors:**
Suraka Bhattacharjee,
Ranjan Chaudhury

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Generalized charge stiffness constant,
charge coupling,
effective Coulomb interaction,
t-J-like models,
momentum-space
pairing.

##### 709 Levels of Students’ Understandings of Electric Field Due to a Continuous Charged Distribution: A Case Study of a Uniformly Charged Insulating Rod

**Authors:**
Thanida Sujarittham,
Narumon Emarat,
Jintawat Tanamatayarat,
Kwan Arayathanitkul,
Suchai Nopparatjamjomras

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Electrostatics Electric field due to continuous
charged distributions,
inverse square law,
superposition principle,
levels of student understandings.

##### 708 Control Strategy for Two-Mode Hybrid Electric Vehicle by Using Fuzzy Controller

**Authors:**
Jia-Shiun Chen,
Hsiu-Ying Hwang

**Abstract:**

Hybrid electric vehicles can reduce pollution and improve fuel economy. Power-split hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) provide two power paths between the internal combustion engine (ICE) and energy storage system (ESS) through the gears of an electrically variable transmission (EVT). EVT allows ICE to operate independently from vehicle speed all the time. Therefore, the ICE can operate in the efficient region of its characteristic brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) map. The two-mode powertrain can operate in input-split or compound-split EVT modes and in four different fixed gear configurations. Power-split architecture is advantageous because it combines conventional series and parallel power paths. This research focuses on input-split and compound-split modes in the two-mode power-split powertrain. Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) for an internal combustion engine (ICE) and PI control for electric machines (EMs) are derived for the urban driving cycle simulation. These control algorithms reduce vehicle fuel consumption and improve ICE efficiency while maintaining the state of charge (SOC) of the energy storage system in an efficient range.

**Keywords:**
Hybrid electric vehicle,
fuel economy,
two-mode
hybrid,
fuzzy control.

##### 707 A New Physical Modeling for Multiquantum Well Structure APD Considering Nonuniformity of Electric Field in Active Regin

**Authors:**
F. Barzegar,
M. H. Sheikhi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Avalanche Photodiode,
Physical Model,
MultiquantumWell,
Split Step Method.

##### 706 Advanced Simulation of Power Consumption of Electric Vehicles

**Authors:**
Ilya Kavalchuk,
Hayrettin Arisoy,
Alex Stojcevski,
Aman Maun Than Oo

**Abstract:**

Electric vehicles are one of the most complicated electric devices to simulate due to the significant number of different processes involved in electrical structure of it. There are concurrent processes of energy consumption and generation with different onboard systems, which make simulation tasks more complicated to perform. More accurate simulation on energy consumption can provide a better understanding of all energy management for electric transport. As a result of all those processes, electric transport can allow for a more sustainable future and become more convenient in relation to the distance range and recharging time. This paper discusses the problems of energy consumption simulations for electric vehicles using different software packages to provide ideas on how to make this process more precise, which can help engineers create better energy management strategies for electric vehicles.

**Keywords:**
Electric Vehicles,
EV,
Power Consumption,
Power
Management,
Simulation.

##### 705 Design of High Gain, High Bandwidth Op-Amp for Reduction of Mismatch Currents in Charge Pump PLL in 180 nm CMOS Technology

**Authors:**
R .H. Talwekar,
S. S Limaye

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Charge pump (CP) Orthogonal frequency divisionmultiplexing (OFDM),
Phase locked loop (PLL),
Phase frequencydetector (PFD),
Voltage controlled oscillator (VCO),

##### 704 A Numerical Study on Electrophoresis of a Soft Particle with Charged Core Coated with Polyelectrolyte Layer

**Authors:**
Partha Sarathi Majee,
S. Bhattacharyya

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Debye length,
double layer polarization,
electrophoresis,
mobility reversal,
soft particle.

##### 703 Presentation of a Mix Algorithm for Estimating the Battery State of Charge Using Kalman Filter and Neural Networks

**Authors:**
Amin Sedighfar,
M. R. Moniri

**Abstract:**

Determination of state of charge (SOC) in today’s world becomes an increasingly important issue in all the applications that include a battery. In fact, estimation of the SOC is a fundamental need for the battery, which is the most important energy storage in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), smart grid systems, drones, UPS and so on. Regarding those applications, the SOC estimation algorithm is expected to be precise and easy to implement. This paper presents an online method for the estimation of the SOC of Valve-Regulated Lead Acid (VRLA) batteries. The proposed method uses the well-known Kalman Filter (KF), and Neural Networks (NNs) and all of the simulations have been done with MATLAB software. The NN is trained offline using the data collected from the battery discharging process. A generic cell model is used, and the underlying dynamic behavior of the model has used two capacitors (bulk and surface) and three resistors (terminal, surface, and end), where the SOC determined from the voltage represents the bulk capacitor. The aim of this work is to compare the performance of conventional integration-based SOC estimation methods with a mixed algorithm. Moreover, by containing the effect of temperature, the final result becomes more accurate.

**Keywords:**
Kalman filter,
neural networks,
state-of-charge,
VRLA battery.

##### 702 Review of Strategies for Hybrid Energy Storage Management System in Electric Vehicle Application

**Authors:**
Kayode A. Olaniyi,
Adeola A. Ogunleye,
Tola M. Osifeko

**Abstract:**

Electric Vehicles (EV) appear to be gaining increasing patronage as a feasible alternative to Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles (ICEVs) for having low emission and high operation efficiency. The EV energy storage systems are required to handle high energy and power density capacity constrained by limited space, operating temperature, weight and cost. The choice of strategies for energy storage evaluation, monitoring and control remains a challenging task. This paper presents review of various energy storage technologies and recent researches in battery evaluation techniques used in EV applications. It also underscores strategies for the hybrid energy storage management and control schemes for the improvement of EV stability and reliability. The study reveals that despite the advances recorded in battery technologies there is still no cell which possess both the optimum power and energy densities among other requirements, for EV application. However combination of two or more energy storages as hybrid and allowing the advantageous attributes from each device to be utilized is a promising solution. The review also reveals that State-of-Charge (SoC) is the most crucial method for battery estimation. The conventional method of SoC measurement is however questioned in the literature and adaptive algorithms that include all model of disturbances are being proposed. The review further suggests that heuristic-based approach is commonly adopted in the development of strategies for hybrid energy storage system management. The alternative approach which is optimization-based is found to be more accurate but is memory and computational intensive and as such not recommended in most real-time applications.

**Keywords:**
Hybrid electric vehicle,
hybrid energy storage,
battery state estimation,
ate of charge,
state of health.

##### 701 Effect of Non Uniformity Factors and Assignment Factors on Errors in Charge Simulation Method with Point Charge Model

**Authors:**
Gururaj S Punekar,
N K Kishore Senior,
H S Y Shastry

**Abstract:**

Charge Simulation Method (CSM) is one of the very widely used numerical field computation technique in High Voltage (HV) engineering. The high voltage fields of varying non uniformities are encountered in practice. CSM programs being case specific, the simulation accuracies heavily depend on the user (programmers) experience. Here is an effort to understand CSM errors and evolve some guidelines to setup accurate CSM models, relating non uniformities with assignment factors. The results are for the six-point-charge model of sphere-plane gap geometry. Using genetic algorithm (GA) as tool, optimum assignment factors at different non uniformity factors for this model have been evaluated and analyzed. It is shown that the symmetrically placed six-point-charge models can be good enough to set up CSM programs with potential errors less than 0.1% when the field non uniformity factor is greater than 2.64 (field utilization factor less than 52.76%).

**Keywords:**
Assignment factor,
Charge Simulation Method,
High Voltage,
Numerical field computation,
Non uniformity factor,
Simulation errors.

##### 700 Numerical and Experimental Studies of Joule Heating Effects around Crack and Notch Tips

**Authors:**
Thomas Jin-Chee Liu,
Ji-Fu Tseng,
Yu-Shen Chen

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Thermo-electric,
Joule heating,
crack tip,
notch tip.

##### 699 Reduction of Peak Input Currents during Charge Pump Boosting in Monolithically Integrated High-Voltage Generators

**Authors:**
Jan Doutreloigne

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Bi-stable display driver,
Dickson charge pump,
highvoltage
generator,
peak current reduction,
sub-pump boosting,
variable frequency boosting.

##### 698 Recent Developments in Electric Vehicles for Passenger Car Transport

**Authors:**
Amela Ajanovic

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Costs,
fuel intensity,
electric vehicles,
emissions.

##### 697 Simulation and Realization of a Battery Charge Regulator

**Authors:**
B. Nasri,
M. Bensaada

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Battery Charge Regulator,
Batteries,
Buck converter,
Power System,
Power Conditioning,
Power Distribution,
Solar arrays.

##### 696 Numerical Analyze of Corona Discharge on HVDC Transmission Lines

**Authors:**
H. Nouri,
A. Tabbel,
N. Douib,
H. Aitsaid,
Y. Zebboudj

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Corona discharge,
Electric field,
Finite element
method,
HVDC.

##### 695 Breaking of Charge Independence of Nucleon-Nucleon Interaction Using Phase Shift Calculations

**Authors:**
B. Rezaei,
N. Amiri,
N. Azizi

**Abstract:**

Using calculated phase- shift values, for pp, nn, and np elastic scattering in the energy range 1MeV to 350MeV, the charge independence breaking of nucleon-nucleon interaction is investigated. We have used Darboux transformation to calculate phase-shift for the first three values of

**Keywords:**
Phase-shift,
charge independence breaking,
Darboux transformation.

##### 694 Zero Voltage Switched Full Bridge Converters for the Battery Charger of Electric Vehicle

**Authors:**
Rizwan Ullah,
Abdar Ali,
Zahid Ullah

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Electric vehicle,
PWM FB converter,
zero voltage
switching,
circulating energy,
duty cycle loss,
battery charger.

##### 693 Volume Density of Power of Multivector Electric Machine

**Authors:**
Aldan A. Sapargaliyev,
Yerbol A. Sapargaliyev

**Abstract:**

Since the invention, the electric machine (EM) can be defined as oEM – one-vector electric machine, as it works due to one-vector inductive coupling with use of one-vector electromagnet. The disadvantages of oEM are large size and limited efficiency at low and medium power applications. This paper describes multi-vector electric machine (mEM) based on multi-vector inductive coupling, which is characterized by the increased surface area of the inductive coupling per EM volume, with a reduced share of inefficient and energy-consuming part of the winding, in comparison with oEM’s. Particularly, it is considered, calculated and compared the performance of three different electrical motors and their power at the same volumes and rotor frequencies. It is also presented the result of calculation of correlation between power density and volume for oEM and mEM. The method of multi-vector inductive coupling enables mEM to possess 1.5-4.0 greater density of power per volume and significantly higher efficiency, in comparison with today’s oEM, especially in low and medium power applications. mEM has distinct advantages, when used in transport vehicles such as electric cars and aircrafts.

**Keywords:**
Electric machine,
electric motor,
electromagnet,
efficiency of electric motor.

##### 692 Comparison of the Thermal Characteristics of Induction Motor, Switched Reluctance Motor and Inset Permanent Magnet Motor for Electric Vehicle Application

**Authors:**
Sadeep Sasidharan,
T. B. Isha

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
SRM,
induction motor,
IPM,
thermal analysis,
loss models,
electric vehicles.

##### 691 Impact Analysis of Transportation Modal Shift on Regional Energy Consumption and Environmental Level: Focused on Electric Automobiles

**Authors:**
Hong Bae Kim,
Chang Ho Hur

**Abstract:**

Many governments have tried to reduce CO_{2} emissions which are believed to be the main cause for global warming. The deployment of electric automobiles is regarded as an effective way to reduce CO_{2} emissions. The Korean government has planned to deploy about 200,000 electric automobiles. The policy for the deployment of electric automobiles aims at not only decreasing gasoline consumption but also increasing electricity production. However, if an electricity consuming regions is not consistent with an electricity producing region, the policy generates environmental problems between regions. Hence, this paper has established the energy multi-region input-output model to specifically analyze the impacts of the deployment of electric automobiles on regional energy consumption and CO_{2} emissions. Finally, the paper suggests policy directions regarding the deployment of electric automobiles.

**Keywords:**
Electric automobiles,
CO2 emissions,
regional imbalances in electricity production and consumption,
energy multi-region input-output model.